|PARTICLE||CHARGE||RELATIVE ATOMIC MASS|
ATOM: made of a nucleus of protons and neutrons, with electrons orbiting.
ISOTOPE: an atom with the same number of protons and electrons and a different number of neutrons (same charge, different mass).
ION: an atom with the same number of protons and neutrons, but a different number of electrons (resulting a positive or negative charge).
This is a constant, low-level of radiation around us at all times.
- CMBR (from space)
- Elements such as radon gas
- Nuclear tests eg nuclear bombs
- Nuclear medicine
Radioactive sources can be dangerous because they are ionising – they can damage the body’s cells, which can lead to genetic mutations, causing diseases such as cancer.
Safety precautions that must be taken are:
- Store radioactive sources in lead
- Never touch a radioactive source.
- Never point a radioactive source at anybody.
- This symbol is the radiation warning symbol.
- GM probe (part of a Geiger counter)
- Spark counter
- Cloud chamber